Evolution of the Standard: General Appearance

 

General Appearance | Head | Neck, Topline and Body and Tail | Forequarters | Hindquarters | Forequarters and Hindquarters together | Gait | Temperament

The background that this Evolution of the Doberman in America, was compiled by Rod Humphries in 1991. He acknowledges these people for this information, Frank Grover, Dr. Thomas Skrentny, Arthur Grey, Peggy Adamson, Joanna Walker, Ann Lanier (then publisher of the DQ) Grace Gardiner , and Wolfran Von-Maszewski. He also acknowledges the early chroniclers and Historians, Phillip Gruenig, William Sidney Schmidt, Silvester Frey and H. A. Graaf van Bylandt, “almost certainly alias Count Henry de Bylandt, who brought to life the ancestors of our Dobermans”.

The chart within the article was part of a handout at one of the DPCA breeders seminars in a program put on by the DPCA breeders education at that time, Mary Rodgers.

It also appeared as an article written by Rod Humphries in the 1991 FALL issue of the Doberman Quarterly, part 2.

I have decided to use the wording from the article itself rather than the chart.

 

The German National Doberman Pinscher Club, the first breed club, was formed August 7, 1899 and its president, Otto Goeller, a chief architect of the breed, to have written this which almost certainly the first standard.

From 1899 “A”

General Appearance:

A well built and muscular dog, not plump and massive and not like a greyhound. His appearance must denotes quickness, strength and endurance. Temperament lively and ardent.  He is courageous and will not run away from anything.Devoted to master and in defending him shows the courage of a lion. He gets along with other dogs; not vicious or disloyal; faithful and watchful and a superior destroyer of animals of prey.

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From 1901 “B”:

Background:

Silvester Frey, who authored the first book on Dobermans in 1912 said that this was written by Goeller in the fall of 1901 and was widely recognized as THE standard. Reds and blues were officially recognized in 1901 and it appears Goeller revised his first standard to include reds and blues and several other changes.

General Appearance 1901 “B”:

Adds to “A” that his eyes show intelligence and resolution. Also adds that he works equally well on water and land. Emphatic that he “must be sharp”.

A well built and muscular dog, not plump and massive and not like a greyhound. His appearance must denotes quickness, strength and endurance. Temperament lively and ardent.  He is courageous and will not run away from anything.Devoted to master and in defending him shows the courage of a lion. He gets along with other dogs; not vicious or disloyal; faithful and watchful and a superior destroyer of animals of prey. His eyes show intelligence and resolution.

Circa 1901 “C”.

1912 book Der Dobermannpinscher by Silvester Frey, published in Berlin. Frey published two points of view, or standards, side by side in his book; the first by Otto Goeller, published here as “B” and that of the union of German clubs, Verbandes de Dobermannpinscher Clubs. Several clubs were formed and had differing views on the breed. The similar wording suggests this grew out of Goeller’s original.

General Appearance:

The Doberman Pinscher is well built and muscular, however neither plump or massive, or have the appearance of a greyhound. His appearance must denote strength, quickness and endurance. His temperament is lively and ardent. His eyes show intelligence and resolution.

 

1920

The German Standard used by the Doberman Pinscher Club of America.

Source: The AKC Official Publication Purebred Dogs, published 1929. Book lists the standard “by courtesy of the DPCA.” The Valuation of Points” table is not listed in other publications. Source also 1926 edition of William Sidney Schmidt’s The Doberman Pinscher, published in the United States. Also 1925 publication of Popular Dogs of the Day by Paul C. Blass published in New York. Blass said that this standard was used in both countries.

General Appearance:

His appearance is of a dog of good middle size, with a body quite square in shape, sinewy and elegant. Built compact, muscular and powerful, cut out for great endurance and speed. Running gear must be light and free. Temperament lively and ardent, the eye expressing intelligence and resolution. Faults: Clumsy, heavy or Greyhound like build.

I would like to add here the definition of sinew and sinewy from the Gilbert and Brown book Structure and Terminology. Sinew is a tendon; that which transmits strength or power from muscle to bone and sinewy is having sinews of marked development; strong tough; firm.

Here are the Valuation of Points

1. General appearance (notability, makeup,gait……………………………20

2. Head (teeth, eyes, ears)……………………………………………………..15

3. Build (neck, breast, back, fore and hind quarters, paws, tail, ect)….40

4. Size (size, dogs 22 3/4 to 25 3/5 inches, bitches, 21 3/5 to 23 3/5 inches)………………………………………………………………………………..5

5. Hair (color, marking)…………………………………………………………………………….10

6. Condition (health and care)………………………………………………………………………………….10

Summery…………………………………………………………………………..100

 

1925

Adopted by the German Doberman Pinscher Verein at Jena, Germany,

November 22, 1925.

Source: The 1929 edition of William Sidney Schmidt’s The Doberman Pinscher published in the U.S. The DPCA did not incorporate this standard in America, but relied on the 1920 modified German standard until it wrote its own standard in 1935.

General Appearance:

The Doberman Pinscher is a dog of medium size with an
elegant, powerful body built in complete harmony of forms. By means of his anatomically correct body, he represents the ideal type of a normally built dog. His carriage is graceful and upright, and in expression and manner of approach he give evidence of his fiery temperament. His entire appearance is that of a nervy, sinewy and dry dog. Built short in body, but covers enough ground and should look square in shape.

1935

Adopted by the DPCA and approved by the AKC in August 1935. The first standard written by the DPCA.

Source: AKC (note: William Sidney Schmidt published a 1935 standard approved by the DPCA in January of that year in the 1935 edition of The Doberman Pinscher. It differed slightly from the final standard approved by the AKC in 1935. The primary difference was that Schmidt’s version listed overshot and undershot mouths exceeding a quarter of an inch as a major fault.

Conformation and General Appearance:

The Doberman Pinscher is a dog of good medium size, square in proportion as viewed from the side. The height measured on a perpendicular line from the top of the withers to the ground, should equal the length, measured horizontally from the forechest or the sternum, to the outer edge of the upper thigh. Permissible height at the shoulder, dogs, 24 to 27 inches; bitches, 23 to 25 inches. Compactly built, muscular and powerful, denoting great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage and great nobility, manifesting by its bearing a wide-awake vivacious personality. Temperament energetic, watchful, determined and alert; loyal and obedient, fearless and aggressive.

Faults: coarseness. Fineness or greyhound build. Undersize or oversize. Commonness, sluggishness, lack of nobility, failure to manifest any of the temperament characteristics. Shyness and bad temper.

There was a scale of points then too. General conformation and appearance. Proportions..8, Substance, muscle and bone..8, Temperament, expression and nobility..8, Condition..5.

1942

Adopted by the DPCA in November 1941, and approved by the AKC, March 10, 1942.

Source: The American Kennel Club.

Conformation and General Appearance:

The appearance of a dog of good middle size, with a body that is square; the height measured vertically from the ground up to the withers., equally the length measured horizontally from the forechest to the rear part of the upper thigh. Height at shoulder, males 25 to 28 inches, bitches, 24 to 26 inches. Compactly built, muscular powerful, for great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage, reflecting great nobility and temperament. Energetic, watchful, determined, and alert, fearless, loyal and obedient.

Faults: Coarseness. Fine greyhound build. Undersize and oversized. Lack of nobility and temperament. Shyness and viciousness.

 

1948

Adopted by the DPCA and approved by the AKC, February 9, 1948.

Source: American Kennel Club

Conformation and general appearance:

The appearance is that of a dog of good middle size, with a body that is square, the height, measured vertically from the ground up to the withers, equaling the length measured horizontally, from the forechest to the rear projection of the upper thigh. Height at the withers, males 26 to 28 inches, ideal being about 27 inches; bitches 24 to 26 inches, ideal being about 251/2 inches. Compactly built, muscular and powerful, for great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage, reflecting great nobility and temperament. Energetic, watchful,determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient. Faults: Coarseness, Fine Greyhound build. Undersized or oversized.

Disqualifying Faults: Shyness, viciousness.

Shyness: A dog shall be judge fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge; if it fears an approach from the rear; it shy from sudden and unusual noises to a marked degree. Viciousness: A dog that attacks or attempts to attack, the judge or its handler is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness.

 

1969

Adopted by the DPCA and approved by the AKC on October 14, 1969.

Source: American Kennel Club.

General conformation and appearance:

The appearance is that of a dog of medium size, with a body that is square; the height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, equaling the length measured horizontally from the forechest to the rear projection of the upper thigh. Height: at the withers–dogs–26 to 28 inches, ideal being about 27 1/2 inches; Bitches–24 to 26 inches, ideal being about 25 1/2 inches.

Length of head, neck and legs in proportion to length and depth of body. Compactly built, muscular and powerful, for great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage, reflecting great nobility and temperament. Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient.

The judge shall dismiss from the ring any shy or vicious Doberman.

Shyness: A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge; if it fears an approach from the rear; if it shies at sudden and unusual noises to a marked degree.

Viciousness: A dog that attacks or attempts to attack either the judge or its handler, is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness.

 

1982/1990

Adopted by the DPCA and approved by the AKC on February 6, 1982, Reformatted November 6, 1990.

Source: American Kennel club. (Note: The only change in 1982 to the standard approved in 1969 was the addition of a disqualifying fault for dogs “Not of an allowed color.” The standard was reformatted  only and no descriptions were changed in 1990.)

General Appearance:

The appearance is that of a dog of medium size, with a body that is square. Compactly built, muscular and powerful, for great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage, reflecting great nobility and temperament. Energetic, watchful,determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient.

Size, Proportion, Substance: Height at the withers: Dogs 26 to 28 inches, ideal about 27 1/2 inches; bitches 24 to 26 inches, ideal about 25 1/2 inches. The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, equaling the leng
th measured horizontally from the forechest to the rear projection of the upper thigh. Length of head, neck and legs in proportion to the length and depth

 

 

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